2005 World Year of Physics

Spectroscopical Term Schemata


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Structures in Micro Objects
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Term Schema of Electron Hulls
Portrait: Schrödinger Portrait: Seaborg The term schema of the electron hull in an arbitrary atom
is obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation
for a sufficiently detailed Coulomb potential.
For any electron state, we denote by
n ... the principal quantum number (shells K,L,... with n = 1,2,...),
l ... the orbital angular momentum (orbitals s,p,... with l = 0,...,n),
m ... the magnetic quantum number (m = -l,...,l).

At Z = 121 (Tl''=Ubu) the Term Schema becomes irregular,
since not only the 8s2-orbital but even a part of the 8p6-orbital, 8p(1/2)2,
is located below the 5g18- (a totally new feature), 6f14-, and 7d10-orbitals.
The other part of the 8p6-orbital, 8p(3/2)4, however, lies above the 9s2- and the lower 9p(1/2)2-orbitals.
This is the reason why the 8th and 9th period do not show the famous
Seaborg parallel alignment configuration
which was characteristic for the 6th (lanthanides) and 7th (actinides) period.

# of statesK (n = 1)L (n = 2)M (n = 3)N (n = 4)O (n = 5)P (n = 6)Q (n = 7)R (n = 8)S (n = 9)Elements
172___8p(3/2)4Bi''=Uhe,...,Rn''=Usb
168___9p(1/2)2Tl'''=Uhs,Pb'''=Uho
166___9s2Fr''=Uhp,Ra''=Uhh
164___7d10Lr'=Upp,...,Hg''=Uhq
154___6f14Ac'=Uqu,...,No'=Upq
140___5g18Ubt,...,Uqn
122___8p(1/2)2Tl''=Ubu,Pb''=Ubb
120___8s2Fr'=Uue,Ra'=Ubn
118___7p6Tl'=Uut,...,Rn'=Uuo
112___6d10Lr,...,Hg'=Uub
102___5f14Ac,...,No
88___7s2Fr,Ra
86___6p6Tl,...,Rn
80___5d10Lu,...,Hg
70___4f14La,...,Yb
56___6s2Cs,Ba
54___5p6In,...,Xe
48___4d10Y,...,Cd
38___5s2Rb,Sr
36___4p6Ga,...,Kr
30___3d10Sc,...,Zn
20___4s2K,Ca
18___3p6Al,...,Ar
12___3s2Na,Mg
10___2p6B,...,Ne
4___2s2Li,Be
2___1s2H,He


Boldface state numbers denote closed hull shells
and are called magic shell numbers.

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