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Structures in Micro Objects

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Term Schema of Electron Hulls

The term schema of the electron hull in an arbitrary atom
is obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation
for a sufficiently detailed Coulomb potential.
For any electron state, we denote by
n ... the principal quantum number (shells K,L,... with n = 1,2,...),
l ... the orbital angular momentum (orbitals s,p,... with l = 0,...,n),
m ... the magnetic quantum number (m = l,...,l).
At Z = 121 (Tl''=Ubu) the Term Schema becomes irregular,
since not only the 8s2orbital but even a part of the 8p6orbital, 8p(1/2)2,
is located below the 5g18 (a totally new feature), 6f14, and 7d10orbitals.
The other part of the 8p6orbital, 8p(3/2)4, however,
lies above the 9s2 and the lower 9p(1/2)2orbitals.
This is the reason why the 8th and 9th period do not show the famous
Seaborg parallel alignment configuration
which was characteristic for the 6th (lanthanides) and 7th (actinides) period.
# of states  K (n = 1)  L (n = 2)  M (n = 3)  N (n = 4)  O (n = 5)  P (n = 6)  Q (n = 7)  R (n = 8)  S (n = 9)  Elements 
172         ___8p(3/2)4   Bi''=Uhe,...,Rn''=Usb 
168          ___9p(1/2)2  Tl'''=Uhs,Pb'''=Uho 
166          ___9s2  Fr''=Uhp,Ra''=Uhh 
164        ___7d10    Lr'=Upp,...,Hg''=Uhq 
154       ___6f14     Ac'=Uqu,...,No'=Upq 
140      ___5g18      Ubt,...,Uqn 
122         ___8p(1/2)2   Tl''=Ubu,Pb''=Ubb 
120         ___8s2   Fr'=Uue,Ra'=Ubn 
118        ___7p6    Tl'=Uut,...,Rn'=Uuo 
112       ___6d10     Lr,...,Hg'=Uub 
102      ___5f14      Ac,...,No 
88        ___7s2    Fr,Ra 
86       ___6p6     Tl,...,Rn 
80      ___5d10      Lu,...,Hg 
70     ___4f14       La,...,Yb 
56       ___6s2     Cs,Ba 
54      ___5p6      In,...,Xe 
48     ___4d10       Y,...,Cd 
38      ___5s2      Rb,Sr 
36     ___4p6       Ga,...,Kr 
30    ___3d10        Sc,...,Zn 
20     ___4s2       K,Ca 
18    ___3p6        Al,...,Ar 
12    ___3s2        Na,Mg 
10   ___2p6         B,...,Ne 
4   ___2s2         Li,Be 
2  ___1s2          H,He 
Boldface state numbers denote closed hull shells
and are called magic shell numbers.



