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Structures in Micro Objects

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Term Schema of Electron Hulls

The term schema of the electron hull in an arbitrary atom
is obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation
for a sufficiently detailed Coulomb potential.
For any electron state, we denote by
n ... the principal quantum number (shells K,L,... with n = 1,2,...),
l ... the orbital angular momentum (orbitals s,p,... with l = 0,...,n),
m ... the magnetic quantum number (m = l,...,l).
At Z = 121 the Term Schema becomes irregular,
since not only the 8sorbital but even a part of the 8porbital, 8p(1/2)2,
is located below the 5g (a totally new feature), 6f, and 7dorbitals.
The other part of the 8porbital, 8p(3/2)4, however,
lies above the 9s and the lower 9p(1/2)orbitals.
This is the reason why the 8th and 9th period do not show the famous
Seaborg parallel alignment configuration
which was characteristic for the 6th (lanthanides) and 7th (actinides) period.
# of states  K (n = 1)  L (n = 2)  M (n = 3)  N (n = 4)  O (n = 5)  P (n = 6)  Q (n = 7)  R (n = 8)  S (n = 9)  Elements 
172         ___8p(3/2)4   Bi''..Rn'' 
168          ___9p(1/2)2  Tl'',Pb'' 
166          ___9s2  Fr'',Ra'' 
164        ___7d10    Lr'...Hg'' 
154       ___6f14     Ac'...No' 
140      ___5g18      Ubt...Uqn 
122         ___8p(1/2)2   Ubu,Ubb 
120         ___8s2   Fr',Ra' 
118        ___7p6    Uut...Uuo 
112       ___6d10     Lr...Uub 
102      ___5f14      Ac...No 
88        ___7s2    Fr,Ra 
86       ___6p6     Tl...Rn 
80      ___5d10      Lu...Hg 
70     ___4f14       La...Yb 
56       ___6s2     Cs,Ba 
54      ___5p6      In...Xe 
48     ___4d10       Y...Cd 
38      ___5s2      Rb,Sr 
36     ___4p6       Ga...Kr 
30    ___3d10        Sc...Zn 
20     ___4s2       K,Ca 
18    ___3p6        Al...Ar 
12    ___3s2        Na,Mg 
10   ___2p6         B...Ne 
4   ___2s2         Li,Be 
2  ___1s2          H,He 
Boldface state numbers denote closed hull shells
and are called magic shell numbers.

